پسیو کردن / پسیواسیون نرده استیل

آیا شده که بعد از مدتی حس کنید که نرده استیل شما رنگ و رویش رفته است؟ آیا شده حس کنید سطح صاف و صیقلی آن کدر شده است؟ برای حل این مشکل چه کار کرده‌اید؟ با ما همراه باشید تا بگوییم در صورت بروز این مشکل چه باید کرد.

برای گرفتن پایان کار ساختمان و یکی از الزامات پایانی که مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد و جزو الزامات و استاندارد سازمان آتش‌نشانی برای تایید مجوز پایان کار است، نرده استیل می‌باشد. به طور کلی سه نوع آلیاژ در نرده‌های استیل مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد:

نرده استیل 201

اگر در داخل خانه و در محیط خشک استفاده نشود زنگ نمی‌زند. اما اگر در محیط بیرونی و نیز محیط‌های مرطوب مانند استخر استفاده شود به مرور و در کمتر از 6 ماه زنگ می‌زند، می‌پوسد و از بین می‌رود. راه حل پوسیدگی برای نرده استیل 201 در فضای بیرونی، تعویض کامل نرده می‌باشد؛ زیرا این آلیاژ به هیچ عنوان در برابر یون کلر و رطوبت مقاومتی ندارد.

اما اگر این نوع نرده پس از 2 سال فقط تغییر رنگ دهد و دچار تغییر رنگ شود، کافی است نرده را پسیو نمایید که هزینه‌ای بسیار کمتر از هزینه تعویض نرده استیل داشته و این فرآیند در کمتر از عرض یک روز به طور کامل انجام می‌شود و سطحی همچون روز اول و صاف و صیقلی به شما ارائه می‌دهد.

نرده استیل 316

معمولا این نرده‌ها در هیچ فضایی، حتی استخر هم زنگ نمی‌زنند؛ اما تقریبا بعد از 5 سال تغییر رنگ می‌دهد. برای حل این مشکل کافی است همانند نرده استیل 304 و 201، آن را پسیو نمایید، و باعث مقاومت هر چه بیشتر نرده استیل شده و در عرض کمتر از یک روز نرده استیل به زیبایی روز اول خواهید داشت.

خلاصه این که شما به راحتی می توانید نرده استیل و پله استیل‌های 304 و 316 را پسیو کنید، بدون اینکه با هیچ گونه مشکلی مواجه شوید و از طرفی هم هزینه ی بسیار کمتری را صرف نمایید. با پسیو کردن نرده، نرده‌های استیل شما مثل روز اول خواهد شد.

پسیواسیون (Passivation) یا غیرفعالسازی سطح نرده استیل چیست؟

پسیواسیون، پسیو کردن یا غیر فعال سازی سطح استیل یک مرحله ضروری برای افزایش مقاومت استیل نسبت به خوردگی قطعات از جنس فولاد ضد زنگ (stainless steel) استنلس استیل است. اینطور نیست که این فرایند اعمال پوشش یا برداشتن یک لایه از فلز باشد؛ بلکه تغییراتی در ساختار سطح ایجاد می‌کند که اگر به روش درست انجام نگیرد منجر به افزایش خوردگی در فلز می‌شود.

این که سازوکار این روش چیست، در این مقال نمی‌گنجد. اما به طور خلاصه در این روش یک لایه نامرئی مقاوم به خوردگی با ضخامت کمتر از 2 میکرومتر بر روی سطح ایجاد می‌کنند. روی سطح تمیز شده و ماشین کاری شده‌ی فولاد ضد زنگ (استنلس استیل) یک لایه اکسید تشکیل می‌شود که باعث جدا شدن و ایزوله شدن سطح از اکسیژن اتمسفر می‌شود که در شرایط ایده آل تمام سطح را می‌پوشاند.

اما در شرایط واقعی چنین است که مقداری آلودگی‌ها همچون آهن و روغن‌های روی سطح بر روی فلز قرار دارد که اگر سطح را تمیز و پاک نکنیم منجر به کاهش اثرگذاری فرایند می‌شود.

بنابراین می‌توان گفت که این فرایند از 2 مرحله اصلی تشکیل شده است: 1- تمیزکاری؛ 2- غیر فعال سازی

تمیزکاری:
همیشه این مرحله در ابتدا و پیش از تمام کارها انجام می‌شود. روغن‌ها، آلودگی‌ها و یا لایه‌های مواد باقیمانده از فرایندهای مختلف و نیز گرد و غبار باید از روی سطح تمیز شوند تا در فرایند پسیواسیون بتوان بیشترین میزان مقاومت به خوردگی را به دست آورد. همیشه مقداری براده آهن که یا از ماشین‌های تراش و یا از روی خود فولاد تراشیده شده است بر روی سطح لوله استیل قرار دارد و از طرفی لایه اکسید و زنگ‌زدگی غیر یکنواختی که به خاطر قرار گرفتن قطعه در معرض اکسیژن محیط ایجاد شده و همچنین مواد معدنی چون کلریدها و سولفیدها و غیره که در مراحل مختلف روی سطح ایجاد شده؛ می‌باید در فرایندهای اسیدشویی حذف شوند. از طرفی به خاطر وجود روغن و چربی‌ها و لایه های غیر فعال از مراحل ماشین کاری (مثل براده آهن) باید یک مرحله چربی‌گیری نیز بر روی لوله استیل انجام گیرد.
از طرف دیگر وجود کلر یا کلریدها روی سطح باعث می‌شود که پس از انجام این فرایند اگر چه لایه براق، تمیز و مقاوم به خوردگی بر روی استیل ایجاد می‌شود، اما به واسطه وجود کلر، پس از گذشت مدت زمانی لایه غیرفعال تیره تر شده و روی سطح و زیر لایه ی غیرفعال، خوردگی و زنگ‌زدگی ایجاد می‌شود.
باید توجه داشت که در تمامی مواردی که در بالا ذکر شد، روی سطح نرده استیل باید کاملاَ تمیز شده و هیچ یک از آلودگی‌ها و مواد شیمیایی و روغن‌ها روی سطح باقی نماند، زیرا وجود هر یک از این ذرات منجر به کاهش شدید مقاومت به خوردگی لوله‌های استیل استنلس می‌شود.

مرحله غیر فعال سازی:
پس از تمیزکاری کامل لوله استیل از جنس فولاد ضد زنگ (استنلس استیل) آماده هستند تا وارد وان غیرفعال سازی شود. سه نوع فرایند برای این کار وجود دارد.
1- محلول هایی که دارای اسید نیتریک هستند
2- وان های حاوی اسید نیتریک و سدیم دی کرومات
3- محلولهای حاوی سیتریک اسید
هر یک از این فرایندها برای آلیاژهای خاص استنلس استیل فولاد زنگ نزن اجرا می‌شود که آن هم بستگی به نوع آلیاژ و میزان مقاومت به خوردگی دارد. بسته به ترکیب آلیاژ و مراحل ماشین‌کاری، فرایندهای اجرا شده برای پسیواسیون استنلس استیل می‌توانند متفاوت باشند. برخی از فرایندها دارای محدودیت دمایی و زمانی هستند که به منظور دستیابی به حداکثر مقاومت به خوردگی باید به طور کامل اجرا می‌شود.

آزمایش لایه غیر فعال
یکی از روش‌های سریع و در دسترس برای این که این نوع پوشش‌ها را مورد آزمایش قرار دهیم روشی است که در استاندارد ASTM A380 آمده است. این استاندارد شامل قرار دادن قطعه در محلول سولفات مس/اسید سولفوریک به مدت 6 دقیقه و مشاهده ی وجود لایه مس فلزی روی سطح لوله استیل است. مس فقط زمانی روی سطح رسوب می‌کندکه آهن محافظت نشده روی سطح وجود داشته باشد.

۱. معرفی – لایه خنثی

مقاومت استنلس استیل در برابر خوردگی، حاصل تشکیل یک غشای نازک و غیر فعالی اکسید کروم در محیط استیل است که با عنوان حالت یا وضعیت خنثی (passive Condition Or passive State) شناخته می شود. هر زمان که سطح تمیز لوله استیل استنلس استیل در تماس با محیطی باشد که اکسیژن کافی در آن موجود است، لایه های اکسید کروم بر سطح آن به طور آنی و خود به خود تشکیل می شود. هرچند ضخامت این لایه برای مدتی بعد از تشکیل اولیه افزایش می یابد. رخدادهای طبیعی مانند تماس با هوا یا آب هوادهی شده (آب گازدار) باعث به وجود آمدن و حفظ حالت ضد خوردگی از طریق سطح غیر فعال می شود. بدین ترتیب استنلس استیل می تواند مقاومت در برابر خوردگی خود را حتی زمانی که آسیبی مکانیکی (مانند خراش یا ماشین کاری) به آن وارد می شود، بر اثر داشتن سیستم درونی خود ترمیمی حفظ نماید. کروم موجود در استیل در درجه اول نقش ایجاد مکانیزم خود – خنثی سازی (Self paSSiVation) را دارد. برخلاف فولادهای کربنی و یا استیل های با عیار پایین، استنلس استیل ها باید حداقل شامل 10.5 درصد از وزن خود کروم و حداکثر 1.2 درصد کربن باشند. این تعریف از استنلس استیل در استاندارد 1-10088 EN داده شده است.

با افزودن عناصر آلیاژی دیگر مثل نیکل، مولیبدن، نیتروژن و تیتانیوم (یا نیوبیوم) به این محلول، مقاومت در برابر خوردگی این استیل های کرومی می تواند بهبود یابد. این امر باعث می شود که محدوده گسترده ای از استیل با مقاومت های گوناگون در برابر خوردگی در کنار ویژگی های دیگر مانند شکل پذیری، استحکام و مقاومت در برابر گرما (آتش) به وجود بیاید. استنلس استیل ها را نمی توان تحت هر شرایطی مقاوم در برابر خوردگی در نظر گرفت. بسته به نوع (ترکیب) استیل شرایطی هست که در آنها حالت خنثی از بین رفته و از شکل گیری مجدد آن جلوگیری می شود. در چنین شرایطی، سطح فعال استیل استنلس فعال (واکنش پذیر) شده که منجر به خوردگی می شود. شرایط فعالی در استنلس استیل ها و لوله‌های استیل م یتواند در محیط های کوچک کم اکسیژن، مانند اتصالات مکانیکی، گوشه های تنگ یا جوش های ناکامل و ضعیف روی دهد. حمله خوردگی ها میتوانند بصورت شکافی و یا در سطوح موضعی رخ دهند.

سطوح استنلس استیل دارای یک سیستم حفاظت از سطح منحصر به فرد می باشد. لایه خنثی در صورت وجود اکسیژن کافی در اطراف، به سرعت شکل میگیرد. و به خاطر این ویژگی یعنی مقاومت در برابر خوردگی، استفاده از روکش های سطح یا محافظت از خوردگی برای استیل لزومی ندارد.

۲. عموما فرایندهای رسوب زدایی، اسیدشویی، خنثی سازی و تمیز کردن: اصطلاحات «رسوبزدایی»، «اسیدشویی» و «خنثی سازی» با همدیگر اشتباه گرفته می شوند، اما هر کدام فرایند متمایزی دارند. در نتیجه فهم دقیق تفاوتهای تأثیر هر یک از این فرایندها بر روی سطوح استنلس استیل بسیار مهم است.

۱. ۲ رسوب زدایی: رسوب زدایی، زدودن پوسته ضخیم و مرئی اکسید از سطح استیل است که معمولاً رنگ آن خاکستری تیره است. این فرایند به طور معمولی هنگام تولید استیل در کارخانه و قبل از تحویل آن انجام می شود. رسوب زدایی کارخانه معمولا در یک فرایند دو مرحله ای انجام می شود، به این صورت که اول به صورت مکانیکی رسوبات موجود بر سطح ست شده و سپس از سطح فلز برداشته می شوند. سپس سطح فلز اسیدشویی می شود تا لایه فلزی که درست زیر رسوب تشکیل شده، برداشته شود. این مرحله از فرایند هم البته باید به عنوان یک فرایند جدا در نظر گرفته شود. اگرچه ممکن است مقدار ناچیز رسوب در بخش های متأثر از حرارت در دمای بالا حین جوش یا فرایندهای حرارتی بر بخشیهایی از قطعات ساخته شده استنلسی استیل به وجود اید، اما معمولا عملیات رسوبزدایی مجدد ضروری نیست.

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